Central Nervous System

The central nervous system or CNS comprises the brain and spinal cord. It is part of our nervous system and it is termed as central because it is a center that receives information, coordinates it and influences the activity of the whole body. It controls our breathing, thoughts, heart rate, emotions, movement, body temperature, the release of some hormones and other parts as well.

The CNS composed of white and gray matter. This can be found in the brain which is encased by the skull. The outer cortex of the brain contains gray matter and white matter in the tract. White matter works as a connector which connects the various location of nerve cell bodies and carries nerve impulses between neuron. White matter consists of myelinated axons. Gray matter is made of neuropil, neuronal cell bodies, glial cells, synapses, and capillaries. The difference between gray matter and white matter is that the latter contains few myelinated axons and numerous cell bodies, while white matter contains few cell bodies and more long-range myelinated axon tracts.

There are various CNS diseases and conditions. CNS infection causes encephalitis and poliomyelitis, neurological disorders like ADHD, autism, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and other, genetic disorders as Krabbe's disease and Huntington's disease.


  • White and gray matter
  • Spinal cord
  • Brain
  • Cranial nerves
  • Difference from the peripheral nervous system
  • Clinical significance

Market Analysis: By 2025, the global market for CNS therapeutics is anticipated to reach USD 128.9 billion. The market is growing because to the rising frequency of mental illnesses and increased awareness of psychiatric problems. In addition, the global demand for CNS treatments is growing due to the growing geriatric population and the increased prevalence of lifestyle-related CNS illnesses.  In 2016, global mental health therapies revenue accounted for 48% of total revenue, and it is predicted to expand at a high rate between 2016 and 2025,by 2020, the global market for central nervous system pharmaceuticals was worth  $82 billion. In 2017, the United States was the largest country in the market, accounting for about 30% of total market share, and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.9% over the projected period. The industry is primarily driven by advancements in diagnostics, therapeutics, and drug discovery approaches. Furthermore, with the rising frequency of CNS diseases linked to sedentary lifestyles and chronic mental disorders, the number of patients is predicted to rise. 

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